Controlling Boiler Level When Operating Conditions Change

Controlling Boiler Level When Operating Conditions Change

If asked to make a short list of factors able to improve heat rate for a thermal power plant, accurate measurement of steam drum liquid level would rank near the top due to its influence on boiler performance. This is particularly true as electric power markets and demand patterns change.Water wall header

Many legacy thermal plants were designed for baseload operation, running for days and weeks at a time with minimal load changes. Now, plants often have to ramp up and down on a daily basis to balance intermittent production from renewables. This takes its toll on equipment, demanding more sophisticated control to maintain efficiency and a desirable heat rate over a wider operating range. Let’s look at level control in boilers and see how this affects efficiency, operation, and maintenance.

Boiler Steam Drum Level

While designs and sizes vary, most subcritical boilers have a drum at the highest point where steam is collected and the tubes come together. Maintaining the right water level in the drum is critical. If the water level is too high, it can be carried into the steam line, and if it makes it all the way to the main turbine, it can damage blades. If the water level is too low, parts of the boiler may go dry and overheat. Both situations can result in long and expensive shutdowns, so a change of only an inch or two in level may cause a trip.

Maintaining this critical level is challenging because a boiler drum is a very turbulent and chaotic place, with high temperature and pressure. Ideally, feedwater should be added at the same rate steam is drawn off. This is manageable when steam consumption is very stable, but when loading goes up and down, level can change quickly. Increasing load draws off steam, causing a pressure decrease in the drum and allowing more steam to bubble in the tubes. This raises the liquid level, and if it is a big enough change in a short time, it can cause a trip. Reducing steam consumption can have the opposite effect.

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code PG–60.1.1 requires any boiler operating above 400 psi to have two direct-reading gauge or sight glasses to indicate drum level. This is a bit old-fashioned and harks back to the days of manual control by a fireman at the boiler. The code does allow one of those direct-reading gauges to be replaced by two indirect methods of level measurement, which can include differential pressure (DP), displacers, conductivity, or radar technology.

Generally, boiler drum level instruments of all types are mounted using external chambers (Figure 1). This mounting device goes by several terms, including bridle and stilling well, but always includes two connections to the drum—above and below the liquid level—so it will have the same level as the drum itself. Both connections have valves so the chamber can be isolated during operation, allowing an instrument to be replaced or serviced without shutting down the boiler. Chambers also help minimize the turbulence, which is characteristic of boiler drums.

Drum Boilers

Drum Boilers

In a drum boiler, the circulation of water is produced through the density difference of water in the downcast pipe and the water/steam mixture in the furnace water-wall. In low-pressure boilers where this density difference is large, the circulating force is high and a high volume of circulation can be ensured, but since it becomes difficult to maintain sufficient circulation volume when the density difference between the two drops due to higher pressure, a pump is installed in the downcast pipe to supplement circulating force. The type that circulates water using only the density difference is known as a natural circulation boiler, while the type that includes an installed pump is known as a forced circulation boiler.hrsg boiler design
Typically, for redundancy, there are three different methods used to measure drum level. In the “Boiler drums/level measurement” example, the bull’s eye technology is a direct reading level measurement. The differential pressure transmitter represents the level control measurement, and the probe type sensor is a common method for level alarms and low and high level shutdown. Note the connections in the second illustration are not realistic.

The chamber with the probes is for drum level alarms and boiler trips. The longest probe is the common one. The one above it is low water trip. The one above that is the low water alarm. The short probe can be a high level alarm or a boiler trip. The length of the probes is determined by the boiler manufacturer. My experience is the low water shutdown probe is 1½ to 2½ inches above the water tube boiler connections.

The basic indication of the drum water level is commonly shown in a sight gage glass (bull’s eye) connected to the boiler drum. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers requires a direct reading of the drum level. Due to the configuration of the boiler, and the distance the boiler drum is from the operator, a line-of-sight indication may not be practical. The gage glass image can be projected with a periscope arrangement of mirrors. There are a number of methods for drum level measurement. Other methods are a closed circuit television and the use of fiber optics.

Jordan Brand Summer 2019 Women’s Collection

Jordan Brand Summer 2019 Women’s Collection

The Jordan Brand Summer 2019 Women’s collection incorporates both classic silhouettes and forward-looking styles. An emphasis on texture and material creates a connective tie between all the shoes, which span premium make-ups of the Air Jordan I, a Flight Utility-inspired remix of the Air Jordan 3 and an updated version of a classic Air Jordan XI Low colorway.

Air Jordan I High PRM “Atmosphere Grey”
Built with a suede and premium leather upper and a special, softer sock liner, this Air Jordan 1 releases May 1.

Air Jordan I Low Slip “Atmosphere Grey”
This easy-going shoe has double snaps at the collar and a softer sole. The understated make-up releases TKTK.

Women’s Air Jordan I High OG “Twist”
Synthetic black material and premium white leather pair for a women’s exclusive take on the OG White/Black Jordan I. It releases in North America on May 10.

Air Jordan I Jester Low
Debuted as part of “The 1 Reimagined,” this shoe is released for the first time as a low this summer. The notable change: shifting from single to a double zipper entry. It comes in Atmosphere Grey or Black and releases May 1.

Women’s Air Jordan XI Low Pink
The low arrives in extended sizes and dressed in a pink snakeskin-inspired scheme on May 7.

Women’s Air Jordan XII “Midnight Black”
Following the spring 18 Vachetta, this the second women’s exclusive AJXII. Each panel has a different take on an exotic animal print. The shoe carries gold accents and a white sole. It releases May Cheap Off White Shoes with best price

Nandrolone phenpropionate

Nandrolone phenpropionate

Nandrolone phenpropionate is a 3-phenylpropionate ester. It has a role as an anabolic agent and an androgen. It derives from a nandrolone.Nandrolone propionate powder
from ChEBI
C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of estradiol to resemble testosterone but less one carbon at the 19 position. It is a schedule III drug in the U.S.
from DrugBank
Nandrolone phenpropionate is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of estradiol to resemble testosterone but less one carbon at the 19 position. It is a schedule III drug in the U. S. Nandrolone is an androgen receptor agonist. The drug bound to the receptor complexes which allows it to enter the nucleus and bind directly to specific nucleotide sequences of the chromosomal DNA. The areas of binding are called hormone response elements (HREs), and influence transcriptional activity of certain genes, producing the androgen effects.

Nandrolone Laurate Cutting Cycle Steroids

Nandrolone Laurate Cutting Cycle Steroids

Alias: Nandrolone laurate Appearance: White Powder
Quality Standard: USP30 Standard Feature: Healthy, Safe
Function: Immune System Product Name: Oral Anabolic Steroids
Type: Oral Usage: Medicine

Quick Detail:

Laurabolin (nandrolone laureate) is an injectable veterinary steroid containing the drug nandrolone laurate. Laurabolin is basically a long acting Deca Durabolin (nandrolone decanoate), staying active for up to a month in the body. If you have problems recovering natural testosterone production after using Deca, you will definitely have problems using Laurabolin.

Product name:Nandrolone laurate
Other name:19-nortestosterone 17b-laurate; Laurabolin
CAS register number:26490-31-3
EINECS :247-739-7
Molecular formula:C30H48O3
Molecular weight:456.7
Molecular structure

Athletes however generally inject this drug on a weekly basis. Being a nandrolone, Laurabolin will exhibit noticeable anabolic effects with weaker androgenic side effects.

Although many women do use nandrolones, Laurabolin may be one to avoid. Androgenic effects can appear in women with nandrolones, especially if blood levels were to build up too high with such a long acting drug. Durabolin would be a better choice.Nandrolone laurate powder

For men, doses of 200-400mg per week seem to work fine. At a strength of 50mg it is difficult to use a much higher dose, although some do find it possible. The Mexican Intervet product (laurato de nandrolona) is found throughout the United States and usually sells for a fair price. It comes in 50ml vials, 50mg per ml.

Nandrolone Laureate is the chemical name of active ingredient in Laurabolin. Laurabolin is a registered trademark of Intervet International in the United States and/or other countries.

this compound is a 19-nor-testosterone based steroid, and specifically, a Nandrolone, which means that nearly anything which is true of Deca-Durabolin (or any other Nandrolone), will be true of Laurabolin. Were talking here about positive effects on joints, collagen, and bone-mineral content. And were also talking about the unfortunate progestinic effects that Nandrolones (remember, Nandrolone is a progestin) have. Progestins have the unfortunate ability to wreak havoc with your natural hormone levels, as well as amplifying many of estrogens effects. Dont forget to have on hand an anti-progestenic ancillary drug. Personally, if I was going to run any form of Nandrolone, Id be using Letrozole at .5mg/day. While its true that Letrozole can cause some problems with blood lipids, I think that when you consider the positive effects that Nandrolone has on them, you’ll find that they can both be run together safely, and actually provide a many complimentary actions. Letrozole will also help you with any possible estrogenic effects from Laurabolin (more on this later). Also, in a cycle containing Laurabolin, testosterone is going to probably be necessary for most people, as youll want to replace the testosterone levels which Laurabolins progestenic properties will have depleted you of. A good rule is to use roughly equal amounts of both compounds.

Laurabolin has a strong anabolic action with minimal androgenic properties and was specifically designed to promote Protein Synthesis without the production of undesired (side) effects. This cellular protein synthesis allows the prevention of protein loss through the urea and promotes lean tissue build up. In animals this compound has also been used to correct metabolic deficiencies, malnutrition, anemia and slow maturation . A Few other characteristics of Laurabolin are maintenance of proper levels of Calcium & Phosphorous, and production of red blood cells . This compound is unlikely to be counterfeited, due to its low demand in the Nandrolone market-place, where Deca and NPP are the reigning champs. Also, Laurabolin is mostly available in Mexico, where it is sold in very low concentrations; wheras Deca and NPP are available from several Underground Labs, as well as major pharmaceutical houses.
Packaging & Delivery Process:

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NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite catches development of Tropical Cyclone 12S

NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite catches development of Tropical Cyclone 12S

Tropical Cyclone 12S has developed east of the African island nation of Madagascar. NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Southern Indian Ocean and captured a visible image of the newly formed storm that has triggered a warning for Rodrigues, an outer island of the Republic of Mauritius.
On Feb. 5, 2019, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA’s Suomi NPP satellite captured visible image of Tropical Cyclone 12S. VIIRS imagery showed powerful thunderstorms wrapping into the low-level center from a large, thick band of thunderstorms spiraling in from the southern quadrant of the storm. Outer clouds from the western quadrant were just brushing the northeastern coast of Madagascar.
At 10 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on Feb. 5 the center of Tropical Storm 12S was located near latitude 15.8 degrees south and longitude 64.3 degrees east. That’s about 492 nautical miles (566 miles/912 km) east-northeast of Port Louis, Mauritius. Maximum sustained winds are near 35 knots (40 mph/65 kph) with higher gusts. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects continuous strengthening and 12S is expected to reach hurricane-force by Feb. 7. It is expected to reach peak intensity near 105 knots (121 mph/194 kph) in three days.

Color Roof Steel Nandrolon

Color Roof Steel Nandrolon

Nandrolone powder Overview
Quick Details
CAS No.:
Other Names:
Oxytocin powder
C43h65n11o13s2, C43h65n11o13s2
Auxiliaries and Other Medicinal Chemicals
Grade Standard:
Medicine Grade
Animal Pharmaceuticals
Brand Name:
Model Number:
Product Name:
Oxytocin Pharmaceutical Peptide Oxytocin acetate
Peptide Oxytocin acetate
Loss on Drying:
Ignition residue:
Not more than 0.1%
Heavy metal:
Not more than 20 ppm
Supply Ability
Supply Ability:
1000 Kilogram/Kilograms per Week We are manufactory,Peptide Oxytocin acetate
Packaging & Delivery
Packaging Details

Veröffentlicht unter Allgemein



The Winter Olympics in South Korea has brought the issue of “doping” in sports back into the public eye. As mentioned in a recent article at Smithsonian magazine online, Olga Medvedtseva became the first athlete caught doping in that year’s games. It wasn’t steroids or amphetamines or other illegal or illicit substances the Olympian was caught using, rather it was the Russian designed nootropic Carphedon, better known in bio-hacking circles as phenylpiracetam. Carphedon was initially created in 1983 by Russian chemists to assist the cosmonaut program. Like phenibut and other substances, it was designed to help cosmonauts stay alert and stress free in space. It has been banned from the Olympics and other professional sports since the World Anti-Doping Agency added it to it’s list of prohibited substances in 2004. In the case of Mededtseva, phenylpiracetam turned out to be just one ingredient in a medication her doctor had prescribed her for a twisted ankle. Despite that she was stripped of her medal and barred from the Games.Bromantane powder

Each Olympics there seems to be at least a handful of doping scandals, this year has been no exception. 1,000 Olympic athletes failed due to using some sort of stimulant like phenylpiracetam or other substances like anabolic steroids. Stimulant medications like phenylpiracetam and modafinil are actually only banned in competition and can be used during training. Phenylpiracetam has been long used for cognitive enhancement as well as its neuroprotective benefits. It seems to be more stimulating than its parent compound piracetam, as well as being more suited to physical training, body building and sports. In addition to the typical racetam psychostimulant effect and cholinergic effect that may enhance learning and memory potential, phenylpiracetam possesses a battery of effects perfectly suited to enhancing physical fitness. In addition to being more physically stimulating, than piracetam it has the added potential benefit of improving loco-motor activity. Just don’t take it before you head to the Olympics or you could end up barred from the Games.

If you’re not a professional athlete, however, there are no restrictions on the use of such mental and physical performance enhancers. Nootropics are well known for improving cognitive performance, but many nootropic cognitive enhancers may also benefit bodybuilders, martial artists, amateur athletes and even gamers. As Smithsonian points out, piracetam and other nootropics have a history going back to the 1960’s but the Olympics and doping scandals have been one thing that actually thrust them into the mainstream news spotlight.

Smithsonian noted that modafinil, piracetam and noopept are three of the most talked about nootropic substances on Reddit and after analyzing 150,000 Reddit comments found they were associated with many people working in the field of technology. Nootropics like phenibut, picamilon and piracetam have their roots in research for the Soviet Cosmonaut program but were later extended to pharmaceutical application for those dealing with age related cognitive decline or issues arising from physical trauma and other causes. Performance enhancers, Alzheimers and dementia drugs as well as a popular “ace in the hole” for those working as entrepreneurs, in Silicon Valley or for university students, nootropics seem to be growing in popularity as they move from a niche communiity of neuro-science geeks to the general public.
For the most part, what’s good for the heart is good for the brain and often what’s good for the heart and brain is also good for overall health as well as building muscle mass, sports training and building speed and endurance. Choline, for instance, is an essential nutrient for brain and nervous system health. Choline supplementation is also vitally important if you plan on supplementing with cholinergics. Acetylcholine, by the way, is not only the learning and memory molecule, but is also closely tied to certain forms of muscle movement.

Bobby Sandage, PhD, Richard Wuronan, MD and LuAnn Sabounjian autbored the journal article, “Dietary Supplements: Effects of Choline on Athletic Performance and Fatigue.” In it they explore the effects of choline on performance, exercise endurance and fatigue by running a series of trials involving running and swimming. The results suggested that plasma choline levels were related to not only neurological functioning but “vigor” and reduced fatigue. Choline is a fatty substance that is an essential fatty acid, related to the B-vitamins and found in fish, eggs, soy and other dietary sources. It’s an excellent “brain food” but also most likely a good friend to anyone working on their physical performance as well.

Choline comes in many forms, the highly refined form of lecithin known as Alpha GPC possesses greater nootropic and physical performance enhancing benefits than your typical (choline bitrate or citrate) choline donor. A 2008 study in he Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition even found that it may augment growth hormone response and peak force production as well as having a positive effect on muscle gains and fat burning. A study from the Center for Applied Health Science Research found that Alpha GPC seemed to increase power output as well as Growth Hormone. Keep in mind, Alpha GPC and other naturally occurring forms of choline are perfectly allowable even in professional sports.

Oxiracetam and Huperzine-A (a constituent found in the Chinese clubmoss) are also “street legal” performance enhancers. Phenylpiracetam, (piracetam with a phenyl chain added) increases physical endurance and cold resistance alongside being a cholinergic cognitive enhancer, but if you’re planning on competing in the Olympics make sure it’s not still in your system come competition time. In place of phenylpiracetam, Rhodiola rosea is another choice that has similar effects on strength, endurance and cold resistance without being banned by the WADA.

GW501516: Shocking Secrets About Cardarine Revealed

GW501516: Shocking Secrets About Cardarine Revealed

GW-501516 also referred to as Cardarine, is a popular compound that was first developed in the early 1990s. Its main purpose is to prevent the formation of tumors in organs like the prostate, colon and breast tissue.

Although it was developed for a completely different purpose, the bodybuilding community started noticing it as a unique and potentially powerful SARM (Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator).

That’s because it has the ability to burn fat, boost endurance and reduce the amount of time that bodybuilders need to recover.

The best part is that GW-501516 is said to not have any side effects.

If all this is true then it’s the best thing since sliced bread for the bodybuilding community. But is it all that it’s cracked out to be? Let’s find out.harmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline developed GW501516 with the intention to leverage its benefits for the treatment of blood vessels, heart, and diabetes.

But, research on this SARM stopped during phase 2 because the animals being tested started developing cancer.

The same results haven’t been observed in humans however, which means that it’s probably only dangerous for animals.

Besides, it would take much longer for the substance to start showing a cancer risk if it were to be tested for that effect on humans.
How was Cardarine discovered, you ask?

Well, the research community has always grappled with trying to find a suitable treatment for lifestyle diseases like inflammation, heart disease, and diabetes.

At some stage, scientists were looking for a compound that would make it possible to increase physical endurance while accelerating the body’s fat burning ability. This is when they stumbled upon the PPAR-delta pathway.

They found that by activating this pathway, they could instantly improve endurance, stimulate muscle growth, burn fat and increase energy while decreasing blood lipids.

Cardarine is one of the few compounds that have the ability to bind itself to the PPAR-delta pathway.

It’s interesting to note that most of the PPAR-delta is found in the muscles, so activating it naturally leads to:read more

RAD140 (Testolone) Review

RAD140 (Testolone) Review

RAD140 is considered to be one of the best mass building SARMs out there. The great thing about SARMS is that they are very selective in its actions. What does this mean? They cause specific growth and development in area’s of the muscle and bones without messing up biological systems like hormone production. So basically, Great results and MINIMAL side effects.

That’s right, with Testolone you won’t be experiencing the nasty side effects stuff like steroids can cause. SARMs (selective androgen receptor modulators) work completely different than steroids and prohormones do. This is probarly the biggest reason why they have become so popular amongst bodybuilders and athletes.

If you haven’t heard about the SARM RAD140 yet you are in for a surprise. In this article, we will be going over EVERYTHING you need to know about RAD140.

It can be quite difficult to find the right RAD140 dosage. Mainly due to the fact that Testolone is very strong compared to other SARMs. There is no set RAD140 dosage that everybody uses, but anecdotal experiences show us that anywhere from 10 to 30mg seems to be the sweet spot.

Testolone has shown anabolic steroid like results at a very low dosage.

You definitely don’t need to use more than 30mg of RAD140 (Testolone) a day. I have personally used Testolone and my RAD140 dosage was 20mg a day. This dose gave me great results over the course of 8 weeks. If you want my opinion, I’d stay within a dosage of 10-20mg a day.

Your RAD140 cycle should never last more than 10 weeks. Especially at higher dosages, Testolone can be suppressive.
It’s time to let me share my personal experience with this compound. I want to start off by saying that I did not expect RAD140 to be so strong. One of my buddies had used it in the past and had great results with barely any side effects.

After my LGD-4033 cycle, I wanted to try something stronger which made me think about using either Testolone, S23 or YK11. I ended up going with Testolone and do not regret it at all. This compound helped me pack on much more muscle than with Ligandrol, you can’t really compare the two .

My cycle ended up lasting 8 weeks at 20mg/day. During the cycle, I felt no side effects whatsoever, perhaps a slight increase in aggression. My strength was through the roof which was amazing. In total, I ended up gaining roughly 10lbs of lean muscle mass. I also kept most of my gains after the cycle was over.

This compound is even stronger than Andarine, which I thought was a relatively effective compound.